Research conducted by independent scientists worldwide consistently highlights the remarkable health benefits associated with both regular and decaffeinated coffee.

Coffee stands out as a potent source of bioactive compounds, particularly rich in polyphenols, which encompass lignans, flavonoids, catechins, anthocyanins, and isoflavones. Moreover, coffee houses other vital compounds such as chlorogenic acids, hydrocinnamic acids, trigonelline, diterpenes, and melanoidins.

Among these health giving compounds, polyphenols shine for their outstanding antioxidant prowess, capable of counteracting detrimental free radicals that can harm cells and foster chronic illnesses.

Chronic inflammation serves as the root cause of numerous maladies, including liver diseases, heart health and cancer. Here, polyphenols come into play, effectively modulating the body's inflammatory response, thereby potentially diminishing the risk of these conditions.

In the realm of gut health, polyphenols wield their influence by regulating the balance of the gut microbiome. They stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms while inhibiting harmful ones, ultimately nurturing overall gut well-being and conceivably reducing the likelihood of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.

Emerging evidence suggests that polyphenols hold promise for brain health, potentially lowering the risk of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. They achieve this by shielding neurons from damage induced by neurotoxins, curbing neuroinflammation, and enhancing memory, learning, and cognitive function.

Coffee also contains a number of important nutrients, notably riboflavin, pivotal for energy production and cellular function; pantothenic acid, indispensable for protein, carbohydrate, and fat synthesis metabolism; manganese and potassium, magnesium and niacin, both playing integral roles in numerous critical metabolic processes.

Latest Discoveries

Research: Health Effects of Coffee: Mechanism Unraveled?

Results: Recent studies have identified a health promoting mechanism common to coffee, vegetables and fruits, i.e., the activation of an adaptive cellular response characterized by the upregulation of proteins involved in cell protection, notably antioxidant, detoxifying and repair enzymes. Key to this response is the activation of the Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2) system by phenolic phytochemicals, which induces the expression of cell defense genes. Coffee plays a dominant role in that regard because it is the major dietary source of phenolic acids and polyphenols in the developed world. A possible supportive action may be the modulation of the gut microbiota by non-digested prebiotic constituents of coffee.

Research: The synergistic ramification of insoluble dietary fiber and associated non-extractable polyphenols on gut microbial population escorting alleviation of lifestyle diseases

Results: Most of the pertinent research which aims at exploring the therapeutic effects of polyphenols usually misapprehends a large fraction of non-extractable polyphenols due to their poor aqueous-organic solvent extractability. These polymeric polyphenols (i.e., proanthocyanidins, hydrolysable tannins and phenolic acids) possess a unique property to adhere to the food matrix polysaccharides and protein sowing to their structural complexity with high glycosylation, degree of polymerization, and plenty of hydroxyl groups. Surprisingly resistance to intestinal absorption does not hinder its bioactivity but accelerates its functionality manifolds due to the colonic microbial catabolism in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby protecting the body from local and systemic inflammatory diseases. This review highlights not only the chemistry, digestion, and colonic metabolism of non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP) but also summarises the synergistic effect of matrix-bound NEPP exerting local as well as systemic health benefits.

Research: Interplay between Lignans and Gut Microbiota: Nutritional, Functional and Methodological Aspects.

Results: Lignans are non-flavonoid polyphenols present in a wide range of foods frequently consumed in the Western world, such as seeds, vegetables and fruits, and beverages such as coffee, tea and wine. In particular, the human gut microbiota (GM) can convert dietary lignans into biologically active compounds, especially enterolignans (i.e., enterolactone and enterodiol), which play anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles, act as estrogen receptor activators and modulate gene expression and/or enzyme activity.

Increased Lifespan

Research: In a review of 21 prospective studies totaling over 10 million participants, drinking one cup of coffee (whether decaf or with caffeine) per day was associated with a 3% reduced risk of death, and drinking 3 cups of coffee was associated with a 13% reduced risk of death.

Results: Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and risk of all-cause mortality: a dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies by Li et al., Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics

Research: A study from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) looked at over 500,000 people, and found that drinking coffee, whether decaf or with caffeine, was associated with reduced risk for death from various causes.

Results: Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries: A Multinational Cohort Study’ by Gunter et al in Annals of Internal Medicine.

Research: A study of over 500,000 people, spanning a decade, found that drinking coffee, whether caffeinated or decafeinated, was inversely associated with mortality, including among those drinking 8 or more cups per day.

Results: Association of Coffee Drinking with Mortality by Genetic Variation in Caffeine Metabolism’ by Loftfield, Cornelis, Caporaso, Yu, Sinha and Freedman, in JAMA Intern Med (2018)

Research: In a large study looking at over 400,000 people, coffee consumption was associated with lower likelyhood of death from disease.

Results: Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality’ by Freedman, Park, Abnet, Hollenbeck and Sinha

Research: Association of Coffee Drinking With Mortality by Genetic Variation in Caffeine Metabolism.

Results: This large prospective cohort study of a half million people found inverse associations for coffee drinking with mortality, including among participants drinking 1 up to 8 or more cups per day.

Cancer Prevention

Research: Health Benefits of Coffee Consumption for Cancer and Other Diseases and Mechanisms of Action.

In addition, there is also evidence that higher coffee consumption is associated with lower rates of colon and rectal cancer, as well as breast, endometrial, and other cancers.

Research: A meta analysis of human prospective studies showed that drinking both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee was associated with reduced risk of liver cancer.

Results: Coffee, including caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis by Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Buchanan R, et al, BMJ Open

Research: Coffee consumption may offer protective benefits for post-menopausal breast cancer. Consumption of four cups per day was associated with a 10% reduction in postmenopausal cancer risk.

Results: Coffee Intake Decreases Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis on Prospective Cohort Studies’ by Lafranconi, et. al in Nutrients (2018)

Diabetes Management *Please note the folowing research on coffee and diabetes is for Type 2 Diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes is a life threating disease that can only be managed with insulin under the guidance of a medical doctor.

Research: Studies show that coffee drinkers are at a lower risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for 90-95% of diabetes cases in the world. They also show that people who drink four or more cups of coffee daily have a 50% lower risk of Type 2 diabetes.

Results: Coffee components inhibit amyloid formation of human islet amyloid polypeptide in vitro: possible link between coffee consumption and diabetes/ by Cheng et al, in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2011)

Research: The Emerging Health Benefits of Coffee with an Emphasis on Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease.

Results: Coffee consumption has been associated with a reduced incidence of impaired glucose tolerance, hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity.

Research: Cafestol, a compound found in coffee, could help to stave off type 2 diabetes. The compound has been found to increase insulin secretion, reduce fasting glucose levels and improve insulin sensitivity in mice.

Results: Cafestol, a bioactive substance in coffee, has anti-diabetic properties in KKAy mice’ by Mellbye et al, in the Journal of Natural Products (2017)

Alzheimer's Disease

Research: Espresso Coffee Mitigates the Aggregation and Condensation of Alzheimer′s Associated Tau Protein.

Results: Recent studies report a protective activity of the coffee beverage against neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer′s disease.

Research: Neuroprotective Effect of Caffeine in Alzheimer’s Disease

Results: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia, predicted to be the most significant health burden of the 21st century, with an estimated 131.5 million dementia patients by the year 2050. This review aims to provide an overview of the effect of caffeine on AD and cognition by summarizing relevant research conducted on this topic.

Research: The Neuroprotective Effects of Moderate and Regular Caffeine Consumption in Alzheimer's Disease.

Results: Moderate (200-500 mg/d) and regular caffeine consumption from coffee and tea are considered to alleviate the risk of AD and have therapeutic potential.

Research: Potential of Caffeine in Alzheimer’s Disease—A Review of Experimental Studies.

Results: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia leading to progressive memory loss and cognitive impairment. Considering that pharmacological treatment options for AD are few and not satisfactory, increasing attention is being paid to dietary components that may affect the development of the disease.

Parkinson's Disease

Research: The Effect of Caffeine on the Risk and Progression of Parkinson’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

Results: Coffee and caffeine are speculated to be associated with the reduced risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The present study aimed to investigate the disease-modifying potential of caffeine on PD, either for healthy people or patients, through a meta-analysis.

Research: Does Drinking Coffee Reduce the Incidence of Parkinson's Disease?

The search for preventative measures has revealed the widely used psychoactive stimulant caffeine, which competitively inhibits adenosine receptors to induce a wide variety of effects.

Research: Addressing the Neuroprotective Actions of Coffee in Parkinson’s Disease: An Emerging Nutrigenomic Analysis

Results: Corroborating epidemiological and laboratory evidence have suggested an inverse association between the dietary intakes of coffee and the risk of Parkinson’s Disease (PD).

Mental Well-being

Research: Neuroprotective Effects of Coffee Bioactive Compounds: A Review

Results: This review summarizes the current knowledge on the neuroprotective potential of the main bioactive coffee components, i.e., caffeine, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, trigonelline, kahweol, and cafestol.

Research: The association between coffee consumption and risk of incident depression and anxiety: Exploring the benefits of moderate intake.

Results: Results were similar for participants who drank 2–3 cups of ground coffee, milk-coffee, or unsweetened coffee. Our findings highlight that 2–3 cups of coffee consumption could be recommended as part of a healthy lifestyle to improve mental health.

Research: Association between dietary caffeine, coffee, and tea consumption and depressive symptoms in adults: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies

This study aimed to examine the correlation between the consumption of dietary caffeine (coffee and tea) and the presence of depressive symptoms in adults.

Heart Health

Research: Impact of Coffee Consumption on Cardiovascular Health

Results: Recent (2000-2021) studies have shown that regular coffee consumption is associated with a decreased risk of developing hypertension, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

Research: Drinking coffee—particularly two to three cups a day—is not only associated with a lower risk of heart disease and dangerous heart rhythms but also with living longer.

Results: Good News for Coffee Lovers: Daily Coffee May Benefit the Heart

Research: Impact of Coffee Consumption on Cardiovascular Health

Our findings suggest that moderate coffee consumption leads to a decrease in all-cause and cardiovascular-related mortality, hypertension, cholesterol, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

Stroke Prevention

Research: The results of a survey looking at over 83,000 women over many years showed that coffee consumption may modestly reduce the risk of stroke among women.

Coffee consumption and risk of stroke in women’ by Lopez-Garcia et al, in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association (2009)

Research: A study from the International Agency for Research on Cancer looked at over 500,000 people, and found that coffee drinking was associated with reduced risk for death from various causes, including stroke.

Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries: A Multinational Cohort Study’ by Gunter et al in Annals of Internal Medicine (2017) [Funded by IARC]

Research: A large-scale study in Japan found that higher green tea and coffee consumption was inversely associated with risk of CVD and stroke in the general population.

The impact of green tea and coffee consumption on the reduced risk of stroke incidence in Japanese population’ by Kobubo et al, in Stroke (2013)

Liver and Kidney Wellness

Research: Coffee and Liver Disease

Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes.

Research: Coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of chronic kidney disease.

Results: Effect of Coffee Consumption on Renal Outcome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Studies' by Kanbay M, Siriopol D, Copur S, Tapoi L, et al. Journal of Renal Nutrition (2020).

Research: The effect of coffee consumption on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver fibrosis: A meta-analysis of 11 epidemiological studies

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a widespread chronic liver disease. It is considered a multifactorial disorder that can progress to liver fibrosis and cause a worldwide public health concern. Coffee consumption may have a protective impact on NAFLD and liver fibrosis.